2016 Nobel Prizes and Articles

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Medicine Nobel for cell recycling work   BBC - October 3, 2016
The 2016 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine goes to Yoshinori Ohsumi of Japan for discoveries about the secrets of how cells can remain healthy by recycling waste.

Strange (exotic) matter wins physics Nobel   BBC - October 4, 2016
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to three British-born scientists for discoveries about strange forms of matter.

Tiny machines win chemistry Nobel prize   BBC - October 5, 2016
The 2016 Nobel Prize for Chemistry has been awarded for the development of the world's smallest machines. Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L Feringa will share the 8m kronor (727,000) prize for the design and synthesis of machines on a molecular scale.

Nobel Peace Prize for Colombia's Juan Manuel Santos   BBC - October 7, 2016
Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the 52-year conflict with left-wing rebels. The Nobel committee in Norway praised him for his peace agreement with Farc rebels, signed last month after four years of negotiations. However, Colombians narrowly rejected the deal in a vote last weekend. The conflict has killed about 260,000 people. More than six million have been internally displaced. Who are the Farc?

  Economists win Nobel for contract theory   BBC - October 10, 2016
UK-born Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom of Finland have won the Nobel economics prize for work on contract theory. Judges said their work laid "an intellectual foundation" for policies in areas such as bankruptcy legislation and political constitutions.

Bob Dylan wins Nobel Literature Prize   BBC - October 13, 2016
US singer Bob Dylan has been awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize for Literature, becoming the first songwriter to win the prestigious award. The 75-year-old rock legend received the prize "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition". The balladeer, artist and actor is the first American to win since novelist Toni Morrison in 1993. His songs include Blowin' in the Wind and The Times They are A-Changin'. Sara Danius, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, said Dylan had been chosen because he was "a great poet in the English speaking tradition".

Are the Nobel Prizes Missing Female Scientists?   Live Science - October 5, 2016
A total of 203 people have won the Nobel Prize in physics, but only two were women (Marie Curie in 1903 and Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963). Many scientists say those numbers point to a fundamental problem with the prizes and how they are awarded. Science writer and physicist Matthew Francis wrote on his blog, Galileo's Pendulum, that the prize favors men of European descent, and European and American researchers in general. That bias, he said, is part of a larger problem of excluding women and minorities for consideration.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry: 1901-Present   Live Science - October 5, 2016
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was the second that Alfred Nobel mentioned in his will establishing the prizes. The first chemistry prize was awarded in 1901. Here is a full list of the winners by year: 2016: Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines." The trio took chemistry to a new dimension by miniaturizing machines, the Nobel Foundation said. 2015: Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar "for mechanistic studies of DNA repair."

Why are Nobel Prize winners getting older?   BBC - October 7, 2016
Out of the Nobel Prize winners that have been announced so far this year the average age is 72, but it was not always this way The 2016 Nobel laureates for physics, medicine and chemistry: all men, at least 65 years old and mostly over 72. Go back to the first half of the 20th Century, however, and the average laureate was "only" 56.

Nobel Peace Prize: 1901-Present   Live Science - October 7, 2016
The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to the person "who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." Here are the Nobel Peace Prize winners from 1901 to present: 2016: Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos "for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to 6 million people," according to a statement by the Nobel Foundation.

Nobel Prize in Economics: 1969-Present   Live Science - October 11, 2016
Economics wasn't on the original list of prizes envisioned by Alfred Nobel. In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, donated money to the Nobel Foundation to extend a prize to economists. In 1969, the first Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded according to the same criteria used for the original prizes.

Nobel Prize in Literature: 1901-Present   Live Science - October 13, 2016
The Nobel Prize in Literature is given to "the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction," according to Alfred Nobel's will. The 18-member Swedish Academy selects the Nobel Laureates in Literature. The winners, along with the reasons given by the Swedish Academy for the award, are: 2016: The Swedish Academy of Science has awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Literature to Bob Dylan, "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition."