Ancient Egyptian Mummies

Most often when we think of mummification, what comes to mind is ancient Egypt, especially the times of the Pharaohs. Although mummification existed in other cultures, eternal life was the main focus of all Ancient Egyptians, which meant preserving the body forever. Egyptian culture believed the body was home in the afterlife to a person's Ka and Ba, without which it would be condemned to eternal wandering.

Ancient Egyptian Beliefs in the Afterlife

Egyptian Mummy Discoveries

Egypt revealed Saturday a rare trove of 30 ancient wooden coffins that have been well-preserved over millennia
in the archaeologically rich Valley of the Kings in Luxor
  PhysOrg - October 20, 2019

30 'Cachette of the Priests' Mummies Discovered in Egypt and Photos   Live Science - October 20, 2019

Irene standing in front of the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut when we traveled to Egypt.

This reads like another insert in the hologram/simulation of our reality. How many times have they suddenly discovered sarcophagi where archaeologists had previously explored and found nothing. The same can be said of civilizations that suddenly appeared and then disappeared. Just inserts.

Spirits? If they existed there - they are long gone. This isn't a mummy movie. It's realizing that we live in a simulation and inserts come and go all the time with some people realizing it and others totally oblivious.

Our perceptions of time also vary depending on our programming. Some people are aware of the loops and hiccups in time while others don't get it at all. BTW - in case you haven't figured it out yet - you and I and everything we believe is real are inserts also.

Giant Haul of Ancient Egyptian Artifacts Spills The Lost Secrets of Mummification   Science Alert - February 23, 2022
A deposit of hundreds of embalming tools uncovered in Abusir, Egypt – probably the largest ever found – offers clues into a lavish funeral that likely took place about 2,600 years ago.

Embalming shafts or caches were commonly used in Ancient Egypt. They were used to store any tool, container, or object that came into contact with the body during the 70 day-long embalming process. The shafts of Abusir, a cemetery for ancient Egyptian elites from the neighboring city of Memphis, have been particularly rich in artifacts. Such rich caches "can be called a 'cookbook' for making mummies.

Canopic Jars

The removed internal organs were separately treated and, during much of Egyptian history, placed in jars of clay or stone. These so-called Canopic Jars were closed with stoppers fashioned in the shape of four heads - human, baboon, falcon, and jackal - representing the four protective spirits called the Four Sons of Horus.

The heart was removed to be weighed against a feather representing Ma'at to determine moral righteousness. The brain was sucked out of the cranial cavity and thrown away because the Egyptian's thought it was useless. Personal belongings were usually placed in the tomb to make the Ka more at home and to assist the dead in their journey into the afterlife.

Text was read from the Book of the Dead and the ritual of "opening the mouth" was performed before the tomb was sealed.


Ancient Goo Spills The Secrets of How The Egyptians Mummified Their Dead  
Science Alert - February 1, 2023

The actual process of embalming as practiced in ancient Egypt was governed by definite religious ritual. A period of seventy days was required for the preparation of the mummy, and each step in the procedure was co-ordinated with relevant priestly ceremonies. The embalmers' shop might be a fixed place, as in the case of those connected with the larger temples. Often, however, it was a movable tent which could be set up near the home of the deceased.

Removal of those parts most subject to putrefaction was the initial step in preparing a corpse for mummification. The embalmers placed the body on a narrow, table-like stand and proceeded to their task. The brain was removed through the nostrils by means of various metal probes and hooks. Such a method necessarily reduced the brain to a fragmentary state, and, as no remains of it are associated with mummies, we may assume that it was discarded. An incision was then made in the left flank of the body to permit removal of the viscera, with the exception of the heart, which was left in the body.

The liver, the lungs, the stomach, and the intestines were each placed in a separate jar, the Canopic Jars, and consigned to the protection of a particular divinity. Next came the preservation of the body itself. This was accomplished in a manner somewhat similar to that of drying fish. But instead of common salt, natron, a mixture of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, with sodium chloride (common salt) and sodium sulphate as impurities, was used. Natron occurs in Egypt in a few places. Water containing natron in solution comes to the surface and is evaporated, leaving the natron as surface deposits.

Small parcels of natron wrapped in linen were placed inside the body. The outside was covered with loose natron or packages of linen-wrapped natron. The dry atmosphere of Egypt accelerated the desiccation process. After the body moisture had been absorbed by the natron, the packs were removed and the corpse was given a sponge bath with water. The skin was anointed with coniferous resins, and the body cavity was packed with wads of linen soaked in the same material. The body was then ready to be bound into that compact bundle we know as a mummy.

Only linen was used in the wrapping. To give a more natural appearance, linen pads were placed in the hollows caused by the drying. The arms and legs, sometimes even the fingers and toes, were bandaged separately. Then some twenty or more layers of alternating shrouds and bandages were wrapped around the entire body. Between every few layers of linen a coating of resin was applied as a binding agent. The proper wrapping of a mummy required several hundred square yards of linen. The shrouds were sheets six to nine feet square, and the bandages-strips torn from other sheets were from two to eight inches wide and three to twenty feet long. The linen used in wrapping mummies was for the most part not made especially for shrouds but was old household linen saved for this purpose. Often the linen is marked with the name of the former owner, faded from repeated washings. Occasionally bandages bear short religious texts written in ink.

When the wrapping had been completed, the shop was cleaned, and all the embalming materials that had come in contact with the mummy were placed in jars for storage in the tomb. This was a fortunate practice, as Egyptian embalmers were none too careful, and any stray toe or ear which may have become detached or mislaid during the long embalming process was usually swept up with the spilled salt and scraps of linen and included in the storage jars.

But the making of a corpse into a mummy was not all that took place during the seventy days. The artisans who were engaged meanwhile in all the activities essential to proper burial might number in the hundreds. The construction and decoration of the tomb, if not already completed by the deceased during his lifetime, presented an enormous task. Woodworkers were constructing the coffin-or a series of coffins, each to fit within another - tailored to measure.

Artists were busy decorating the coffins. The fine painting on the coffins was rarely done directly on the wood, but rather on a smooth plaster coating of whiting and glue over linen glued to the wood. The beautiful colors on many cases are pigments from minerals found in Egypt, often covered with a clear varnish.

Countless other helpers were engaged in constructing and assembling the numerous articles to be deposited with the mummy when it was laid to rest in the tomb.

An extremely important task also undertaken during the seventy days of mummification was the preparation by priests or scribes of magical texts to be placed in the tomb. These texts, now known as the 'Book of the Dead' were written on papyrus rolls varying in length from a few sheets to many sheets, some rolls approaching a length of one hundred feet. Often they were exquisitely illustrated in color. The chapters forming the Book of the Dead contained information necessary to the deceased in overcoming obstacles on his journey and in gaining admittance to the afterworld.

An elaborate funeral procession of priests, relatives, friends, servants, and professional mourners accompanied the mummy to the tomb. Attended by priests, the mummy, in its magnificent coffin, was carried on a great sledge pulled by oxen. The mourners followed behind the sledge. In the procession, too, were porters bearing gifts to be placed in the tomb. These mortuary accouterments believed essential for a happy afterlife might be furniture, weapons, jewelry, food, linens - any or all of those things that had made for comfort and happiness in the earthly life.

The final ceremony at the tomb was the opening of the mouth. Through this ceremony the mummy was thought to regain ability to move, to talk, and to eat. In order to fulfill his destiny in the afterworld. It was necessary that the priests perform this last rite which would restore to him the functions of a living person.

The mummy was then carried into the tomb and sealed in the outer coffin or sarcophagus. The Book of the Dead was placed near him, mortuary gifts were piled about, and priests in the guise of gods made sure no evil spirits lurked in the tomb.

According to Egyptian belief, interment of the mummy did not automatically insure entrance into the afterworld. The deceased had first to appear before a group of forty-two spiritual assessors and convince them that he had led a righteous life on earth. Then in a final trial before Osiris, king of the nether world, the heart of the deceased was placed on the Great Scales and balanced against a feather, symbol of righteous truth. Anubis, the jackal-headed god who presided over embalming, did the weighing, while Thoth, the ibis-headed scribe of the gods, recorded the result on a tablet. If the heart of the deceased passed this test, he was admitted into heaven. If not, his soul was doomed to roam the earth forever.

The Pre-Dynastic Egyptian (before 3000 n.e.) was buried in the sand and was surrounded with pottery jars containing food. He was placed on his side in a contracted position, and was occasionally wrapped in reed matting or animal hide. Later, the dead were placed in crudely made baskets, boxes, or pottery coffins, which were buried in the sand or deposited in small natural caves at the base of the cliffs in the Nile Valley. By 3000 b.c. men of importance had small chambers cut for themselves in the rock, often with a shallow pit or niche to receive the coffin. From these beginnings evolved the typical Egyptian tomb consisting of two essential parts: the burial chamber and a room in which offerings to the dead were placed.

Most impressive of all Egyptian tombs are those of the Pyramid Age (2800-2250 B.C.). Those colossal tombs that are as famous as Egypt herself developed from a less elaborate form now called "mastaba" (from the Arabic word mastabah, meaning "bench," which describes the form of the superstructure of the tomb). The mastaba tombs are low, rectangular structures of brick and stone built on bedrock. The building houses an offering chamber, or a series of them, and a secret room containing a statue of the deceased.

A vertical shaft in the superstructure leads down into the bedrock to the tomb chamber some twenty to eighty feet below. The limestone walls in the offering chambers of the mastaba tombs are covered with sculptured scenes done in low relief. They were originally painted, and some of the color still remains. It is from these skilfully executed scenes depicting contemporary Egyptian life that we derive much of our knowledge of the period. The mastaba tombs are for the most part those of nobles, the pharaohs preferring the more monumental pyramids. The great pyramids at Giza, tombs of the Fourth Dynasty kings, are by far the most imposing of the pyramid tombs.

The Egyptians were mummifying their dead even in the days of the pyramids. Indeed, there are mummies that antedate the pyramids. These ancient mummies are wrapped in the contracted position characteristic of Pre-Dynastic burials, whereas the mummy of the Pyramid Age lies full length on its back, enclosed in a box-type coffin decorated to resemble a house.

In the early days of mummification only the kings were definitely conceded the opportunity to attain an exalted afterlife. Religious texts to aid the dead kings in gaining entrance into heaven were carved on the stone walls of the mortuary chambers of some of the pyramids. These are now known as the Pyramid Texts. It is on the walls of the pyramids of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasty kings at Saqqara -smaller and less imposing pyramids than those at Giza - that these oldest collections of Egyptian religious texts are found. Although nobles of the Pyramid Age were also accorded sumptuous burial, no texts are found in their tombs.

By the time of the Middle Kingdom (2100-1780 b.c.), after the period of the mastabas and pyramids, tombs and their accessory chambers were usually hewn out of solid rock in the sides of the hills along the Nile. Occasionally, however, tombs were enclosed by or built under mortuary buildings erected on the plain.

These buildings served as chapels or offering chambers. The mummy of the Middle Kingdom was placed on its left side in a rectangular wooden coffin on which was painted religious texts. These Coffin Texts were excerpts from the older Pyramid Texts, with the addition of new thoughts and symbols. Some mummies had a cartonnage mask over the upper portion of the body. These cartonnage coverings--layers of linen or papyrus soaked in plaster - were shaped in human form and painted. Sometimes the entire mummy was enclosed in such a covering, a practice which quickly led to the making of coffins themselves in mummy form.

A person of rank or wealth (and these went hand in hand), would have a series of two or three coffins, each case fitting inside the other, with the inner one the most elaborate. Often the outer coffin would be carved from stone in mummy form, or would consist of a huge stone sarcophagus. It was late in this period, when liberalization of religious concepts extended the privilege of an afterlife to those in less fortunate circumstances than kings and nobles, that beards appeared on mummy cases. The beard, heretofore worn only by divinities and kings, indicated presumption on the part of the deceased that he would be accepted into their immortal presence.

During the time of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties the rock-cut tombs reached their zenith in the famous Tombs of the Kings in the valleys at Thebes. These tombs consist of corridors, chambers, and halls descending into the solid rock of the hillsides a distance of several hundred feet. The walls are covered with religious texts and scenes, and with inscriptions and pictures portraying every phase in the life of the deceased, all beautifully painted.

Mummification practices, too, varied with the passing centuries. The use of the Canopic Jars as repositories was discontinued during the Twenty-first Dynasty (1085-945 BC), and the viscera were henceforth wrapped in packages and replaced in the body or bound with it. Hollows in the desiccated body were cleverly filled out by placing pads of linen underneath the skin. From this period on, the art of making good mummies went into a gradual decline, even though mummification continued to be practiced for another fifteen hundred years. Less attention came to be paid to the condition of the body itself, and more to the external appearance of the wrappings.

In Roman times (after 30 BC) a garish type of coffin came into use. Showy cartonnage coverings were formed and painted in fanciful likeness of the deceased. At the same time, coffin-makers were building coffins of simple board boxes. On the cover there might be a life-sized plaster face modeled after that of the dead. Sometimes a painted portrait of the deceased was placed inside the coffin over the face of the mummy.

Quite naturally, wealth was always a dominant actor in the mummification and burial accorded an individual. Although actual Egyptian records of the cost of mummi~cation are lacking, Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian who traveled in Egypt, touches on burial costs in his writings. According to Diodorus, at the time he journeyed in Egypt (60-57 b.c.) there were three grades of burial. One was expensive, costing sixty-six pounds of silver (one talent), another cost a third as much (twenty minas), and the lowest grade of burial cost much less.

Tombs for the common people had no chambers. The coffins were placed in walled recesses in the side of a rock or in shallow holes gouged out of the rocky plain. Mummies of the poor were placed in common repositories, either with or without coffins. The bodies of those with no money at all were given a perfunctory ceremonial cleansing, were sometimes covered with a cloth, and were buried in the sand.

The Egyptians believed that a god incarnate assumed the form of an animal. Nearly every deity was associated in their minds with a certain bird or beast. So it is not surprising that we find near the sites of ancient cities large cemeteries devoted to the burial of animals. Usually only one kind of animal was buried in a given cemetery. Adjacent to each such cemetery was a temple devoted to the cult of the god identified with the specific kind of animal buried at that place.

The animals were mummified, but not always too carefully. Chief stress was laid on the bandaging, the object having been that the package should clearly indicate the kind of animal enclosed. Often these animal mummies were placed in theriomorphic coffins. There are mummies of jackals, cats, ibises, snakes, lizards, gazelles, hawks, bulls, sheep, baboons, crocodiles--in fact, almost every conceivable kind of animal known to Egypt.

At some places animal tombs such as those of the Apis bulls at Memphis are found. The tombs of the Apis bulls, which date from the Eighteenth Dynasty and later, consist of subterranean passages and vaults hewn in the rock an aggregate length of some twelve hundred feet. Many of the bulls were placed in huge stone sarcophagi.

The ambition of every Egyptian was to have a well mummified body and a perpetually cared-for tomb. The children of the deceased were charged with the maintenance of this home on earth and the observation of all attendant ceremonies. In the case of a favored government official a portion of the state revenue might be assigned as an endowment for the care of the tomb.

As the number of deceased ancestors and officials multiplied, however, and the consequent cost of tomb maintenance became excessive, the tendency was to neglect those of the remote past and to concentrate attention on those of the more recently deceased. Thus the living inhabitant of ancient Egypt, with all the faith he placed in the preservation of his own mummy, was constantly faced with the anomaly of neglected and despoiled tombs -for tomb robbers were at work even during the days of mummification.

We have Egyptian papyri recording the robbery of royal tombs and the capture and punishment of the despoilers. An archaeologist rarely finds a tomb that has not been plundered.

'Mummy dust' was sometimes stolen from the Sarcophagi and sold.

There are about 500 Egyptian mummies in the US. Most are in museums. Some are privately owned.

Egyptian Mummies as a Commodity

In the Middle Ages, based on a mis-translation from Arabic it became common practice to grind mummies preserved in bitumen into a powder to be sold and used as medicine. When actual mummies became unavailable, the sun-desiccated corpses of criminals, slaves and suicidal people were substituted by mendacious merchants. The practice developed into a wide-scale business which flourished until the late 16th century. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties against bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form as in Mellified Man.

Artists also made use of Egyptian mummies; the brownish paint known as Caput mortuum (Latin for death's head) was originally made from the wrappings of mummies. It was most popular in the 17th century but was discontinued in the early 19th century when its composition became generally known to artists.

In the 19th century, European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions. These sessions destroyed hundreds of mummies, because the exposure to the air caused them to disintegrate.

An urban myth of mummies being used as fuel for locomotives was popularized by Mark Twain, but the truth of the story remains a debate.

During the American Civil War, mummy-wrapping linens were said to have been used to manufacture paper. Evidence for the reality of these claims is still equivocal.

Many thousands of mummified cats were sent from Egypt to England to be processed for use in fertilizer.

Famous Egyptian Mummies

King Tutankhamen

Bahariya Mummies of Ancient Egypt

Thutmose II's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX.

The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmose I, his likely father, as the mummy face and shape of the head are very similar. The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body.[29] All of these injuries were sustained post-mortem, though the body also showed signs that Thutmose II did not have an easy life

Ramesses II was originally buried in the tomb KV7 in the Valley of the Kings but, because of looting, priests later transferred the body to a holding area, re-wrapped it, and placed it inside the tomb of queen Inhapy. Seventy-two hours later it was again moved, to the tomb of the high priest Pinudjem II. All of this is recorded in hieroglyphics on the linen covering the body. His mummy is today in Cairo's Egyptian Museum. The pharaoh's mummy reveals an aquiline nose and strong jaw, and stands at some 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in).[58] His ultimate successor was his thirteenth son, Merneptah.

In the Royal Mummy Cache at DB320, an ivory canopic coffer was found that was inscribed with the name of Hatshepsut and contained a mummified liver or spleen as well as the tooth that now has been found to fit the second mummy in the wet nurse's tomb. There was a royal lady of the twenty-first dynasty of the same name, however, and for a while it was thought possible that it could have belonged to her instead

Gebelein Predynastic Mummies

The Gebelein predynastic mummies are six naturally mummified bodies, dating to approximately 3400 BC from the Late Predynastic period of Egypt, and were the first complete pre-dynastic bodies to be discovered. The well-preserved bodies were excavated at the end of the nineteenth century by Wallis Budge, the British Museum Keeper for Egyptology, from shallow sand graves near Gebelein (modern name Naga el-Gherira) in the Egyptian desert.

Budge excavated all the bodies from the same grave site. Two were identified as male and one as female, with the others being of undetermined gender. The bodies were given to the British Museum in 1900. Some grave-goods were documented at the time of excavation as "pots and flints", however they were not passed on to the British Museum and their whereabouts remain unknown. Three of the bodies were found with coverings of different types (reed matting, palm fibre and an animal skin), which still remain with the bodies. The bodies were found in foetal positions lying on their left sides.

From 1901 the first body excavated has remained on display in the British Museum. This body was originally nicknamed 'Ginger' due to his red hair; this nickname is no longer officially used as part of recent ethical policies for human remains.


Currently on display in the British Museum, Ginger was discovered buried in hot desert sand. Desert conditions can naturally preserve bodies so it is uncertain whether the mummification was intentional or not. However, since Ginger was buried with some pottery vessels it is likely that the mummification was a result of preservation techniques of those burying him. Stones might have been piled on top to prevent the corpse from being eaten by jackals and other scavengers and the pottery might have held food and drink which was later believed to sustain the deceased during the journey to the other world. While there are no written records of religion from that time, the beliefs of those who buried Ginger could have resembled the later religion to some extent.

The earliest technique of deliberate mummification, as used ca. 3000 BC, was minimal and not yet mastered. The organs were eventually removed (with the exception of the heart) and stored in canopic jars, allowing the body to be more well-preserved as it rested. Occasionally embalmers would break the bone behind the nose, and break the brain into small pieces in order that it could be pulled out through the nasal passage. The embalmers would then fill the skull with thick plant-based resin or plant resin sawdust.

It also wasn’t until the Middle Kingdom that embalmers used natural salts to remove moisture from the body. The salt-like substance natron dried out and preserved more flesh than bone. Once dried, mummies were ritualistically anointed with oils and perfumes. The 21st Dynasty brought forth its most advanced skills in embalming and the mummification process reached its peak.

The bodies' abdomens were opened and all organs, except for the heart, were removed and preserved in Canopic jars. The brain, thought to be useless, was pulled out through the nose with hooks, then discarded. It was also drained through the nose after being liquefied with the same hooks.

The emptied body was then covered in natron, to speed up the process of dehydration and prevent decomposition. Natron dries the body up faster than desert sand, preserving the body better. Often finger and toe protectors were placed over the mummies fingers and toes to prevent breakage. They were wrapped with strips of white linen that protected the body from being damaged. After that, they were wrapped in a sheet of canvas to further protect them. Many sacred charms and amulets were placed in and around the mummy and the wrappings. This was meant to protect the mummy from harm and to give good luck to the Ka of the mummy. Once preserved, the mummies were laid to rest in a sarcophagus inside a tomb, where it was believed that the mummy would rest eternally. In some cases the mummy's mouth would later be opened in a ritual designed to symbolize breathing, giving rise to legends about revivified mummies.

Liber Linteus

Liber Linteus is the longest Etruscan text and the only extant linen book, dated to the 3rd century BC. It remains mostly untranslated because of the lack of knowledge about the Etruscan language, though the few words which can be understood indicate that the text is most likely a ritual calendar. The fabric of the book was preserved when it was used for mummy wrappings in Ptolemaic Egypt. The mummy was bought in Alexandria in 1848 and since 1867 both the mummy and the manuscript have been kept in Zagreb, Croatia, now in a refrigerated room at the Archaeological Museum.

In the News ...

When did the ancient Egyptians first mummify their dead?   Live Science - February 20, 2024

Before the ancient Egyptians purposefully mummified their dead, the desert did it for them naturally. Ancient Egyptians are perhaps best known for the way they treated the dead from constructing colossal pyramids to filling subterranean tombs with lavish treasures and artifacts. The Egyptians also famously mummified many of the recently deceased to preserve their bodies. The origins of Egyptian mummification, for which there is clear scientific evidence, is [circa] 4,300 B.C. and may go back earlier.

See gorgeous ancient Egyptian 'mummy portraits' from nearly 2 millennia ago   Live Science - October 17, 2023

In the early first millennium, many mummies in Egypt were affixed with lifelike portraits showcasing the deceased's once-vivid eyes, styled hair and elaborate jewelry. Over the past few centuries, archaeologists have unearthed more than 1,000 of these mummy paintings, largely from the city of Fayum, earning them the name In the early first millennium, many mummies in Egypt were affixed with lifelike portraits showcasing the deceased's once-vivid eyes, styled hair and elaborate jewelry. Over the past few centuries, archaeologists have unearthed more than 1,000 of these mummy paintings, largely from the city of Fayum, earning them the name "Fayum portraits."

2,300-year-old Egyptian mummification workshops found at Saqqara   Live Science - June 2, 2023

Two ancient mummification workshops - one for humans and another for animals - have been discovered at Saqqara in Egypt. The workshops date back around 2,300 years and were in use between the late 30th dynasty and the early Ptolemaic period. During that time, Egypt lost its independence, first being conquered by the Persians and then by the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great. After Alexander's death in 323 B.C., one of his generals, Ptolemy I, took over Egypt, and his descendants ruled over the country for nearly three centuries.

Archaeologists may have found Egypt's oldest mummy. The 4,300-year-old mummy was a rich, important 35-year-old man called Djed Sepsh   CNN - January 30, 2023

Don't say 'mummy': Why museums are rebranding ancient Egyptian remains   CNN - January 30, 2023

They are among the most popular exhibits in museums worldwide, with a name so resonant, blockbuster films have been built on it. But some museums in Britain are now using words other than "mummy" to describe their displays of ancient Egyptian human remains. Instead, they are starting to adopt terms such as "mummified person" or to use the individual's name to emphasize that they were once living people. Using different language to describe these human remains can also distance them from the depiction of mummies in popular culture, which has tended to "undermine their humanity" through "legends about the mummy's curse" and by portraying them as "supernatural monsters," Jo Anderson, assistant keeper of archaeology at the Great North Museum: Hancock in Newcastle, northeast England, wrote in a blog posted in May 2021 that outlined her museum's language change.

Scans of Mummified 'Golden Boy' Reveal He Was Covered in Magical Protections   Science Alert - January 25, 2023
A teen boy whose mummy had been stored in a museum since 1916 was covered in precious amulets, a study published Tuesday found. A team of scientists has digitally unwrapped the 2,300-year-old mummy using a CT scanner to uncover its secrets.

Stunning CT scans of 'Golden Boy' mummy from ancient Egypt reveal 49 hidden amulets   Live Science - January 25, 2023
Incredibly detailed computed tomography (CT scans) of the so-called "Golden Boy" mummy from ancient Egypt have revealed a hidden trove of 49 amulets, many of which were made of gold. The young mummy earned its nickname because of the dazzling display of wealth, which included a gilded head mask found in the mummy's sarcophagus. Researchers think he was about 14 or 15 years old when he died because his wisdom teeth had not yet emerged. The Golden Boy was originally unearthed in 1916 at a cemetery in southern Egypt and has been stored in the basement of The Egyptian Museum in Cairo ever since. The mummy had been "laid inside two coffins, an outer coffin with a Greek inscription and an inner wooden sarcophagus

Mummies With Golden Tongues Discovered in Ancient Egyptian Necropolis   Science Alert - November 28, 2022

Archaeologists have discovered several ancient mummies in Egypt sporting gold chips where their tongues should be. The auspicious discovery was made at the Quweisna (sometimes spelled Quesna) necropolis in the central Nile Delta. Discovered in 1989, the site is thought to have been occupied during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, which stretched from about 300 BCE to 640 CE.

Ancient Egyptian mummification was never intended to preserve bodies, new exhibit reveals   Live Science - November 22, 2022
It's long been believed that ancient Egyptians used mummification as a way to preserve a body after death. However, an upcoming museum exhibition indicates that was never the case, and instead the elaborate burial technique was actually a way to guide the deceased toward divinity.

Saqqara: Hundreds of Ancient Mummies Discovered in Vast Egyptian Necropolis   Science Alert - May 31, 2022

Egypt on Monday unveiled a cache of sarcophagi and bronze statuettes - including one of pioneering architect Imhotep - at the Saqqara archaeological site south of Cairo. They were the latest in a series of discoveries made in the area.

Hundreds of ancient Egyptian sarcophagi, cat mummies and gold-leafed statues unearthed   Live Science - June 1, 2022

Meet Shep-en-Isis: Scientists reconstruct the face of a female mummy who died 2,600 years ago, revealing she was 'probably a beautiful young lady' despite having a set of protruding teeth   Daily Mail - January 21, 2022
A forensic reconstruction of the face of a female mummy who died about 2,600 years ago reveals a 'beautiful young lady' with deep brown eyes and slightly protruding upper teeth. Scientists have spent months creating the reconstruction of what they call the most famous Egyptian mummy in Switzerland known as Shep-en-Isis, or Schepenese, using CT scans and morphological data from her skeleton. Shep-en-Isis was found in 1819 at Deir el-Bahari, a famous complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile River in Egypt, before being transported to Switzerland in 1820.

Scientists digitally 'unwrap' mummy of pharaoh Amenhotep I for the first time in 3,000 years   PhysOrg - December 28, 2021

This was the first time in three millennia that Amenhotep's mummy has been opened. The previous time was in the 11th century BCE, more than four centuries after his original mummification and burial. Hieroglyphics have described how during the later 21st dynasty, priests restored and reburied royal mummies from more ancient dynasties, to repair the damage done by grave robbers.

Mummy of Amenhotep I is 'digitally unwrapped' for the first time: CT scans reveal the Egyptian Pharaoh was some 35 years old, 5'7" and circumcised when he died 3,000 years ago   Daily Mail - December 28, 2021

Mummy with gold-foil 'tongue' found in sealed Egyptian tomb. Archaeologists found three tongues made of gold   Live Science - December 10, 2021
Archaeologists have discovered the remains of three ancient Egyptian inhabitants - a man, woman and child - outfitted with tongues of gold foil, a treasure likely intended to help them speak with gods in the afterlife. The burials were found in two neighboring tombs. One of the tombs, which had been plundered by grave robbers, held the remains of the woman and a 3-year-old child, and it had a limestone sarcophagus with a lid shaped like a woman. But the man's grave, from the 26th dynasty (664 B.C. to 525 B.C.), also known as the Saite period, was untouched.

Oldest Mummy Ever Found Will Rewrite Egyptian History   Mysterious Universe - October 27, 2021
Ask most people what they know about Egypt and their answer is usually pyramids and mummies. Ask what they know about mummies and the answers are most often from movies and television rather than history or archeology. In a way, it’s probably good that they haven’t depended on history for their mummy info because a new discovery is changing everything the experts know about Egyptian mummies – starting with when it was first practices.

Ancient Egyptians Used Embalming Techniques 1,000 Years Earlier Than Initially Thought   Vintage News - October 27, 2021
New findings regarding the discovery of the tomb of Ancient Egyptian nobleman Khuwy have the potential to change our view of the civilization’s embalming techniques. The tomb dates back to the Old Kingdom, which existed from 2575 BC to 2150 BC. According to a team of researchers, the body of Khuwy shows mummification techniques used 4,000 years ago were much more advanced than previously thought. In particular, the embalmers bathed the body in resins made from tree sap and wrapped it in high-grade bandages, a technique originally thought to have begun 1,000 years later.

World's first pregnant ancient Egyptian mummy has been discovered: 2,000-year-old corpse found in Thebes was 28 weeks into her pregnancy when she died, scans reveal   Daily Mail - April 30, 2021
This mummy, dating back to the 1st century BC, is the first discovered case of a pregnant embalmed body. The woman was in her 20s and was between 26 and 30 weeks pregnant when she died. She was found in the 1800s in the Royal Tombs of Thebes and is on display at the National Museum in Warsaw. The discovery opens up questions related to status of the fetus in ancient Egyptian religion and society. Particularly over why it was decided not to remove the fetus from the mother before embalming her.

A Pregnant Ancient Egyptian Mummy With a Partial Fetus Has Been Discovered in a Shocking World First   Science Alert - April 30, 2021
At first, archaeologists thought they were scanning the mummy of an ancient Egyptian priest named Hor-Djehuty. Then, in the body's abdomen, images revealed what appeared to be the bones of a tiny foot. Full scans confirmed it: the foot belonged to a tiny fetus, still in the womb of its deceased and mummified mother. Not only is this the first time a deliberately mummified pregnant woman has been found, it presents a fascinating mystery. Who was the woman? And why was she mummified with her fetus? So peculiar is the discovery, scientists have named her the Mysterious Lady of the National Museum in Warsaw.

Ancient Egyptian Mummy Found Entombed in Strange Cocoon Never Seen by Archeologists   Science Alert - February 4, 2021
The discovery of a rare "mud mummy" from ancient Egypt has surprised archaeologists, who weren't expecting to find the deceased encased in a hardened mud shell. The "mud carapace" is an unparalleled find; it reveals "a mortuary treatment not previously documented in the Egyptian archaeological record.

Mummy with a gold tongue found in Egypt   Live Science - February 1, 2021
Archaeologists have found a 2,000-year-old mummy with a gold tongue at an ancient Egyptian site called Taposiris Magna. Embalmers perhaps placed the golden tongue on the mummy to ensure that the deceased would be able to speak in the afterlife

Mummy returns: Voice of 3,000-year-old Egyptian priest brought to life   BBC - January 23, 2020

Scientists have fulfilled a mummified Egyptian priest's wish for life after death - by replicating his voice with artificial vocal chords. Nesyamun's voice has been reproduced as a vowel-like sound that is reminiscent of a sheep's bleat. The priest lived during the politically volatile reign of pharaoh Ramses XI, between 1099 and 1069BC. As a priest in Thebes, Nesyamun would have needed a strong voice for his ritual duties, which involved singing. When Nesyamun died, his voice fell silent, but 3,000 years on, a team of researchers have brought it back to life.

Egypt animal mummies showcased at Saqqara near Cairo   BBC - November 23, 2019
A large cache of mummified animals found in an ancient Egyptian necropolis have been displayed for the first time near the capital Cairo. Archaeologists discovered the trove last year near the Step Pyramid of Saqqara, south of the capital. They uncovered hundreds of artefacts, including masks, statues and mummified cats, crocodiles, cobras and birds. Egyptian authorities unveiled the artefacts at an exhibition near the Saqqara necropolis.

Two Lion Cub Mummies Discovered in Egypt for the First Time   Live Science - November 23, 2019
Two mummified lions, dating back about 2,600 years, have been discovered in a tomb full of cat statues and cat mummies in Saqqara, the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities. This is the first time that a complete mummy of a lion or lion cub has been found in Egypt. Analysis is ongoing, but it appears the lions are fairly small - about 3 feet (just under 1 meter) in length, - Waziri said, suggesting that they were not fully grown when they died. Three other mummies that belong to large cats (the exact species is unclear) were found near the two lions. These three other mummies could belong to leopards, cheetahs or other forms of big cat. About 20 mummies of smaller cats were also found near the lion cubs.

Mummified mother and child found in Egypt among dozens preserved remains date back to the Graeco–Roman period which began with the rule of Alexander the Great in 332 BC   Daily Mail - April 25, 2019
The discovery was made by the Egyptian-Italian archaeological mission, which has discovered around 300 tombs in the Aswan West Bank area in the south of the country. The tomb contained various artfacts, including a statuette of a bird, various vases, and a stretcher that was probably used to bring mummies into the tomb. Writing found on parts of a coffin in the tomb revealed both a series of prayers to different gods as well as the name of the tomb's owner - Tjt.

Ancient Tomb of Mysterious Man Named Tjt Discovered in Egypt   Live Science - April 25, 2019

Exquisitely Preserved Mummies Discovered in One of Egypt's Largest Tombs   Live Science - November 27, 2018
n one of the largest tombs ever found in Luxor, Egypt, archaeologists have discovered a sarcophagus holding the mummy of a woman named Pouyou who lived during the 18th dynasty, the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities announced on Nov 24. In a nearby tomb, another team found several mummies inside sarcophagi with one sarcophagus having hieroglyphics that refer to the goddess Mut,. Several confusing reports on the discovery over the weekend erroneously reported that all the mummies were found in a single tomb

'Cursed' Mummy Cheese Might Be the World's Oldest, Researchers Say   Live Science - August 17, 2018
In the necropolis of Saqqara, Egypt, researchers discovered a broken jar containing what appeared to be a hunk of 3,300-year-old cheese - possibly the oldest known cheese in the world. If you are still disappointed about being denied the opportunity to drink the toxic red mummy juice unearthed in Egypt last month, we have some good news for you. Researchers have just discovered the world's oldest cheese (also in Saqqara, Egypt), and it is almost certainly cursed... or at least contaminated. The cheese in question was discovered among a large cache of broken clay jars inside the tomb of Ptahmes, former mayor of Memphis (ancient Egypt, not Tennessee) and a high-ranking official during the reigns of pharaohs Seti I and Ramesses II. The tomb is thought to have been built in the 13th century B.C., making it - and the cheese within - about 3,300 years old.

Prehistoric mummy reveals ancient Egyptian embalming 'recipe' was around for millennia   Science Daily - August 16, 2018
The ancient Egyptians developed sophisticated embalming treatments far earlier and across a wider geographical area than had been previously known, forensic tests on a well-known prehistoric mummy have revealed.It is the first time that extensive tests have been carried out on an intact prehistoric mummy, consolidating the researchers' previous findings that embalming was taking place 1,500 years earlier than previously accepted. Dating from c.3700-3500 BC, the mummy has been housed in the Egyptian Museum in Turin since 1901, but unlike the majority of other prehistoric mummies in museums, it has never undergone any conservation treatments, providing a unique opportunity for accurate scientific analysis. Like its famous counterpart Gebelein Man A in the British Museum, the Turin mummy was previously assumed to have been naturally mummified by the desiccating action of the hot, dry desert sand.

Ancient Egyptian mummification 'recipe' revealed   BBC - August 16, 2018
Examination of a mummy has revealed the original ancient Egyptian embalming recipe - first used to preserve bodies. A battery of forensic chemical tests carried out on a mummy that dated from 3,700-3,500 BC revealed the recipe and confirmed that it was developed far earlier and used more widely than previously thought. The Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy, is now home to the mummy in question.

Archaeologists discover a 2,500-year-old mummy in what they thought was an empty Egyptian coffin sitting in storage at a university for 150 years   Daily Mail - March 27, 2018
Archaeologists at Sydney University have discovered the remains of a 2,500-year-old Egyptian mummy in a coffin that was in storage for 150 years. The researchers are now using modern technology to study the remains and hope to shed new light on the ancient civilisation.

History of tattooing is rewritten after world's earliest figurative inkings are found on 5,000-year-old Egyptian mummies in the British Museum   Daily Mail - March 1, 2018
The world's earliest figurative tattoos have been discovered on 5,000-year-old Egyptian mummies at the British Museum, rewriting the history of inking. The tattoos are of a wild bull and a Barbary sheep on the upper-arm of a male mummy, and S-shaped motifs on the upper-arm and shoulder of a female. The find dates tattoos containing imagery rather than geometric patterns to 1,000 years earlier than previously thought. Researchers say the discovery 'transforms' our understanding of how people lived during this period.

'Oldest tattoo' found on 5,000-year-old Egyptian mummies   BBC - March 1, 2018
Researchers have discovered the oldest figurative tattoos in the world on two 5,000-year-old mummies from Egypt. The illustrations are of a wild bull and a Barbary sheep on the upper-arm of a male mummy, and S-shaped motifs on the upper-arm and shoulder of a female. The discovery pushes back evidence for the practice in Africa by 1,000 years.

Scan technique reveals secret writing in mummy cases   BBC - December 31, 2017
Researchers in London have developed scanning techniques that show what is written on the papyrus that mummy cases are made from. These are the decorated boxes into which the wrapped body of the deceased was placed before it was put in a tomb. They are made from scraps of papyrus which were used by ancient Egyptians for shopping lists or tax returns. The technology is giving historians a new insight into everyday life in ancient Egypt. The hieroglyphics found on the walls of the tombs of the Pharaohs show how the rich and powerful wanted to be portrayed. It was the propaganda of its time. The new technique gives Egyptologists access to the real story of Ancient Egypt, according to Prof Adam Gibson of University College London, who led the project.

Mummified Egyptian Woman's Portrait Mapped in Incredible Detail   Live Science - December 14, 2017
More than 1,800 years ago, an artist in ancient Egypt painted the portrait of a large-eyed woman wearing a red tunic — a painting that ended up resting on the woman's dead, mummified body. The exact materials and methods the artist used to capture the woman's likeness were unknown, but were recently deciphered in amazing detail, according to a new study. With the new technique, the researchers figured out not only the raw materials used to create the painting, but also the order in which they were applied, the researcher said.

Newly unearthed ancient tomb with mummies unveiled in Egypt   CNN - September 9, 2017
Egyptian authorities unveiled a previously undiscovered ancient tomb belonging to a goldsmith and his wife near Luxor in southern Egypt on Saturday. The tomb, at the Draa Abul Nagaa necropolis, contains "mummies, sarcophagi, statuettes, pots and other artifacts," according to Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities. It belonged to Amenemhat -- which means the god "Amen Is In the Forefront" -- and his wife Amenhotep, said Mostafa Al-Waziri, who led the Egyptian team which unearthed the 3,500-year-old tomb. While Amenhotep is usually a man's name, Waziri said, the team found references inside the tomb that indicated she was the lady of the house. CNN was the first media outlet to be given access to the tomb on the day of the announcement.

New mummies discovered in tomb near Luxor, Egypt   BBC - September 9, 2017
Archaeologists in Egypt have discovered the tomb of a royal goldsmith containing the mummies of a woman and her two children, authorities said. The tomb, dating back to the New Kingdom (16th to 11th Centuries BC), was found near the Nile city of Luxor, 400 miles (700km) south of Cairo. Among the items discovered inside was a statue of the goldsmith Amenemhat, sitting beside his wife. It is unclear whether the three mummies discovered are connected to Amenemhat. The mummies were found down a burial shaft leading off the main chamber, Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities said.

35 Photos: The Amazing Mummies of Peru and Egypt   Live Science - March 17, 2017
Archaeologists used to unwrap Egyptian mummies with much fanfare in front of crowds, a stunt that destroyed cultural history and disrespected the deceased individual. Now, researchers can use computed tomography (CT) scans to noninvasively learn about mummies without literally unwrapping them. Here is a look at the science behind "Mummies," an exhibit about Peruvian and Egyptian mummies that runs from March 20 until Jan. 7, 2018, at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and then returns to the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago.

  Is this the world's youngest mummy?   Daily Mail - November 17, 2016

Scans of what was thought to be a 2,300-year-old hawk reveal it to be a miscarried baby. The remains, which are preserved in a tiny sarcophagus, are now believed to belong to a miscarried 20-week gestation fetus. It is the latest in a series of remarkable discoveries made by medical experts analyzing ancient Egyptian artifacts at Maidstone Museum, Kent.

Last of a dynasty: 3,800-year-old mummy of ancient Egyptian woman described as 'one of the most important figures in the Middle Kingdom' has been unearthed   Daily Mail - May 25, 2016

A 3,800-year-old ancient Egyptian mummy has been discovered in a necropolis and may have been one of the most important figures in the civilization's history. Archaeologists unearthed the tomb in the necropolis of Qubbet el-Hawa in southeastern Egypt and believe it belonged to a woman called 'Lady Sattjeni', a key figure in the Middle Kingdom. They say the body was found in extremely good condition, wrapped in linen and deposited inside two wooden coffins.

Mummified Fetus From Ancient Egypt Found -   Discovery - May 12, 2016

Curators at a British museum have discovered what they claim is the youngest mummy from ancient Egypt - a mummified fetus believed to be between 16 and 18 weeks old. For more than 2,500 years, the tiny body has been resting in a small wooden coffin, the arms crossed over its chest. The coffin was excavated at Giza in 1907 by the British School of Archaeology and came into the collection of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, U.K., the same year.

Egyptian Mummy's Symbolic Tattoos Are 1st of Their Kind   Live Science - May 10, 2016

More than 3,000 years ago, an ancient Egyptian woman tattooed her body with dozens of symbols - including lotus blossoms, cows and divine eyes - that may have been linked to her religious status or her ritual practice. Preserved in amazing detail on her mummified torso, the surviving images represent the only known examples of tattoos found on Egyptian mummies showing recognizable pictures, rather than abstract designs. The mummy was found at a site on the west bank of the Nile River known as Deir el-Medina, a village dating to between 1550 B.C. and 1080 B.C. that housed artisans and workers who built the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings

First kidney of ancient Egyptian mummy was found because the man was diseased   Ancient Origins - September 27, 2015
Over the years, scientists have found evidence of cancers, heart disease, starvation, ulcers, smallpox, tuberculosis and other infections in ancient remains from all over the world. Now, for the first time ever, researchers using CT scans have detected a diseased kidney in an ancient Egyptian mummy. A kidney normally would decay long before the 2,800 years that have elapsed since the man named Irtieru was embalmed, but it appears he had a kidney disease called renal tuberculosis that calcified (hardened) the organ.

Mummy Mask May Reveal Oldest Known Gospel   Live Science - January 18, 2015
A text that may be the oldest copy of a gospel known to exist - a fragment of the Gospel of Mark that was written during the first century, before the year 90 - is set to be published. At present, the oldest surviving copies of the gospel texts date to the second century (the years 101 to 200). This first-century gospel fragment was written on a sheet of papyrus that was later reused to create a mask that was worn by a mummy. Although the mummies of Egyptian pharaohs wore masks made of gold, ordinary people had to settle for masks made out of papyrus (or linen), paint and glue. Given how expensive papyrus was, people often had to reuse sheets that already had writing on them.

Dozens of Mummies Unearthed at Egypt's Valley of the Kings   Live Science - April 28, 2014
Archaeologists have discovered the final resting place of at least 50 royal Egyptians - including princes, princesses and infants - while excavating a trashed tomb at the Valley of the Kings. Hieratic inscriptions (a cursive form of hieroglyphs) revealed that most of the mummies in the tomb were related to two pharaohs, Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III, who ruled during the 14th century B.C. The dead included at least eight previously unknown royal daughters, four princes and some children, the archaeologists said.

Ancient Egyptian Mummy Found With Brain but No Heart   Live Science - April 7, 2014
An ancient Egyptian mummy found with an intact brain, but no heart, has a plaque on her abdomen that may have been intended to ritually heal her, say a team of researchers who examined the female body with CT scans. The woman probably lived around 1,700 years ago, at a time when Egypt was under Roman rule and Christianity was spreading, according to radiocarbon dating. Her name is unknown and she died between age 30 and 50. Like many Egyptians, she had terrible dental problems and had lost many of her teeth. The use of mummification was in decline as Roman culture and Christianity took hold in the country. But this woman and her family, apparently strong in their traditional Egyptian beliefs, insisted on having the procedure done.


Nubian Mummies Had 'Modern' Disease   Live Science - June 9, 2011
A "modern" disease of humans may have been what sickened ancient Nubian cultures, research on more than 200 mummies has found. The mummies were infected by a parasitic worm associated with irrigation ditches.The disease, called schistosomiasis, is contracted through the skin when a person comes into contact with worm-infested waters. The disease infects over 200 million people worldwide a year; once contracted, the disease causes a rash, followed by fever, chills, cough and muscle aches. If infection goes untreated, it can damage the liver, intestines, lungs and bladder.