Chemistry (from Egyptian keme (chem), meaning "earth") is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. It is a physical science for studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes. Modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy following the chemical revolution (1773).

Disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the energy related studies of chemical systems at macro, molecular and submolecular scales; analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e.g. neurochemistry the chemical study of the nervous system.

Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it connects physics with other natural sciences such as geology and biology Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics. It is the science of atomic matter (that made of chemical elements), its properties, structure, composition and its changes during interactions and chemical reactions.

Chemistry   Wikipedia

Periodic Table

In the News ...

Physicists say they've confirmed new form of matter in a breakthrough of 'cosmic significance'   Live Science - December 9, 2017
Nearly 50 years after it was first theorized, physicists claim they’ve finally proven the existence of a new form of matter, known as ‘excitonium.’ Excitonium is made up of particles known as excitons, which are made from an escaped electron and the hole it left behind. In the new experiments, the researchers say they were able to observe the material and the precursor phase, which is said to be the ‘smoking gun’ proof of its existence.

Potential 'missing link' in chemistry that led to life on Earth discovered   Science Daily - November 6, 2017
Origins-of-life researchers have hypothesized that a chemical reaction called phosphorylation may have been crucial for the assembly of three key ingredients in early life forms: short strands of nucleotides to store genetic information, short chains of amino acids (peptides) to do the main work of cells, and lipids to form encapsulating structures such as cell walls. Yet, no one has ever found a phosphorylating agent that was plausibly present on early Earth and could have produced these three classes of molecules side-by-side under the same realistic conditions.

Breaking the rules: Heavy chemical elements alter theory of quantum mechanics   PhysOrg - October 3, 2017
A series of complicated experiments involving one of the least understood elements of the Periodic Table has turned some long-held tenets of the scientific world upside down. Researchers found that the theory of quantum mechanics does not adequately explain how the heaviest and rarest elements found at the end of the table function. Instead, another well-known scientific theory - Albert Einstein's famous Theory of Relativity helps govern the behavior of the last 21 elements of the Periodic Table.

Modifying the composition of magnetite to enable it to convert sunlight into electrical current   PhysOrg - January 23, 2017

Mined to make the first compass needles, the mineral magnetite is also made by migratory birds and other animals to allow them to sense north and south and thus navigate in cloudy or dark atmospheric conditions or under water. A team of scientists has compositionally modified magnetite to capture visible sunlight and convert this light energy into electrical current. This current may be useful to drive the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The team generated this material by replacing one third of the iron atoms with chromium atoms.

Facts About Einsteinium   Live Science - January 22, 2017

Einsteinium, the 99th element on the Periodic Table of Elements, is a synthetic element that is produced in extremely small amounts and with a very short lifetime. If the name seems familiar, it's because it is indeed named after famed physicist Albert Einstein, although he had nothing to do with the element's discovery or research. Einsteinium was discovered during the examination of debris from the first hydrogen bomb test in November 1952, according to Chemicool. A team of scientists from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and led by Albert Ghiorso, an American nuclear scientist at Berkeley, studied the debris collected by drones using chemical analysis. Minuscule amounts of einsteinium-253, an isotope of einsteinium, were discovered (less than 200 atoms, according to an article printed in Nature Chemistry by Joanne Redfern, a British science writer, in 2016). Fermium, the 100th element, was also discovered in the debris.

New candidate for 'missing element' in Earth's core   BBC - January 10, 2017

Japanese scientists believe they have established the identity of a "missing element" within the Earth's core. They have been searching for the element for decades, believing it makes up a significant proportion of our planet's centre, after iron and nickel. Now by recreating the high temperatures and pressures found in the deep interior, experiments suggest the most likely candidate is silicon. The discovery could help us to better understand how our world formed.

Super-hard metal 'four times tougher than titanium'   BBC - July 22, 2016
A super-hard metal has been made in the laboratory by melting together titanium and gold. The alloy is the hardest known metallic substance compatible with living tissues, say US physicists. The material is four times harder than pure titanium and has applications in making longer-lasting medical implants, they say. Conventional knee and hip implants have to be replaced after about 10 years due to wear and tear.

Manchester astronomers detect precious element in space   PhysOrg - May 13, 2016

A team of astronomers have detected a rare gas 4000 light years away from Earth. The discovery could help scientists to understand more about the history of this important element. Helium-3 is a gas that has the potential to be used as a fuel in nuclear fusion power plants in the future, and is crucial for use in cryogenics and medical imaging techniques. There is very little of it available on Earth, so most of it is manufactured in nuclear laboratories at great cost. There are thought to be significant supplies on the Moon, and several governments around the world have signaled their intention to go to there to mine it, which could trigger a new space race.

World's Most Complex Crystal Never Repeats   Epoch Times - December 25, 2014

The most complicated crystal structure ever produced in a computer simulation is a lesson in how complexity can emerge from simple rules. The icosahedral quasicrystal looks ordered to the eye, but has no repeating pattern. At the same time, it's symmetric when rotated, similar to a soccer ball with five-fold and six-fold patches. Researchers say this property, called icosahedral symmetry, is frequently found on small scales around a single point, like in virus shells or buckyballs - molecules of 60 carbon atoms. But it is forbidden in a conventional crystal.

Complex organic molecule found in interstellar space   BBC - September 28, 2014
Scientists have found the beginnings of life-bearing chemistry at the centre of the galaxy. Iso-propyl cyanide has been detected in a star-forming cloud 27,000 light-years from Earth. Its branched carbon structure is closer to the complex organic molecules of life than any previous finding from interstellar space. The discovery suggests the building blocks of life may be widespread throughout our galaxy. Various organic molecules have previously been discovered in interstellar space, but i-propyl cyanide is the first with a branched carbon backbone.

Earth's Gold Came from Colliding Dead Stars   Science Daily - July 17, 2013

This artist's conception portrays two neutron stars at the moment of collision. New observations confirm that colliding neutron stars produce short gamma-ray bursts. Such collisions produce rare heavy elements, including gold. All Earth's gold likely came from colliding neutron stars. Gold is rare on Earth in part because it's also rare in the universe. Unlike elements like carbon or iron, it cannot be created within a star. Instead, it must be born in a more cataclysmic event -- like one that occurred last month known as a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Observations of this GRB provide evidence that it resulted from the collision of two neutron stars -- the dead cores of stars that previously exploded as supernovae. Moreover, a unique glow that persisted for days at the GRB location potentially signifies the creation of substantial amounts of heavy elements -- including gold.

Rare Element on Earth Discovered in Ancient Starlight   Live Science - February 23, 2012
Light from three ancient stars at the edge of the Milky Way indicates that the stars contain tellurium, a brittle, superconducting element that is rare on Earth. The cosmic discovery, which also spotted traces of other heavy elements, supports the theory that these elements were synthesized in the rapidly collapsing cores of rare supernovas (stellar explosions).

Names proposed for new elements   BBC - December 2, 2011
Scientists have put forward their suggested names for the newest additions to the Periodic Table. If the names are accepted, element 114 will become Flerovium (Fl) in honor of the physicist Georgiy Flerov. While element 116 will become Livermorium (Lv), after the Californian laboratory where it was discovered. The table's governing body will officially endorse the names in five month's time, 10 years after the elements were discovered.

Three new heavy elements named   MSNBC - November 4, 2011
The periodic table of elements just got a bit heftier Friday, as the names of three new elements were approved by the General Assembly of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. Elements 110, 111 and 112 have been named darmstadtium (Ds), roentgenium (Rg) and copernicium (Cn).

Nuclear missing link created at last: Superheavy element 117   PhysOrg - April 7, 2010
A collaboration of Russian and US physicists has finally created element 117 - a superheavy element made of atoms containing 117 protons that is roughly 40% heavier than lead.

Prussian Blue Paint/Salt Linked to Origin of Life   Science Daily - December 16, 2009

Prussian blue  Wikipedia
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Scientists Make Ink Disappear, Make Paper Reusable   PhysOrg - October 27, 2009
Despite ongoing efforts to save the trees, many offices print high volumes of paper documents on a daily basis. Although many companies encourage paper recycling, both disposing of and recycling paper have negative environmental impacts. What if there was a way to reuse printed paper by removing the ink and quickly transforming it back into clean, white paper?

Seeing Previously Invisible Molecules for the First Time   PhysOrg - October 23, 2009
A team of Harvard chemists led by X. Sunney Xie has developed a new microscopic technique for seeing, in color, molecules with undetectable fluorescence. The room-temperature technique allows researchers to identify previously unseen molecules in living organisms and offers broad applications in biomedical imaging and research.

Superheavy Element 114 Confirmed: A Stepping Stone To The 'Island Of Stability'   Science Daily - September 26, 2009
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy¬Ļs Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been able to confirm the production of the superheavy element 114, ten years after a group in Russia, at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, first claimed to have made it. The search for 114 has long been a key part of the quest for nuclear science¬Ļs hoped-for Island of Stability.

New element named 'copernicium   BBC - July 16, 2009
Discovered 13 years ago, and officially added to the periodic table just weeks ago, element 112 finally has a name. It will be called "copernicium", with the symbol Cn, in honour of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus deduced that the planets revolved around the Sun, and finally refuted the belief that the Earth was the centre of the Universe.

'Kryptonite' discovered in Serbian mine BBC - April 24, 2007
Kryptonite is no longer just the stuff of fiction feared by caped superheroes. A new mineral matching its unique chemistry - as described in the film Superman Returns - has been identified in a mine in Serbia. According to movie and comic-book storylines, kryptonite is supposed to sap Superman's powers whenever he is exposed to its large green crystals. The real mineral is white and harmless, says Dr Chris Stanley, a mineralogist at London's Natural History Museum.

Discovery of new family of pseudo-metallic chemicals PhysOrg - April 25, 2007
The periodic table of elements, all 111 of them, just got a little competition. A new discovery by a University of Missouri-Columbia research team, published in Angewandte Chemie allows scientists to manipulate a molecule discovered 50 years ago in such as way as to give the molecule metal-like properties, creating a new, "pseudo" element. The pseudo-metal properties can be adjusted for a wide range of uses and might change the way scientists think about attacking disease or even building electronics.

Heavy atom - controversy-plagued superheavy element 118 finally created BBC - October 17, 2006
Russian and US scientists say they have produced a new super-heavy atom - albeit for just fractions of a second. The element has 118 protons in its nucleus, an arrangement never before seen in nature or in the laboratory. Three of the atoms were detected when calcium was smashed into a target made from californium; they then rapidly decayed into lighter elements. The scientists report their work in the journal Physical Review C. They are based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in California; and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) at Dubna, north of Moscow. Element 118 is expected to be a noble gas that lies right below radon on the periodic table of elements.